The integration of UM with sustainable urban and regional design tools remains underdeveloped and existing tools, like the integrated resource management (IRM) model by ARUP (Page et. al. 2008), are predominantly applied to planning and designing newly developed areas. The key challenge in Europe lies, however, in the transformation of existing settlements and cultural landscapes and therefore in areas that REPAiR focuses on.

Another shortcoming that REPAiR will address is the heavily criticised static and rigid nature of the master plan approach underpinning the IRM and similar tools. Actual policies take organic planning as a starting point and need further support to avoid falling back into conventional paradigms, particularly regarding peri-urban areas, often leading to the emergence of WL and uncontrolled urbanisation with high waste production, environmental loads and thus missed opportunities for CE.

REPAiR considers spatial planning and design as promoting integrated, inclusive and participatory development and emphasises the necessity of increasing awareness of the availability of decision-making tools amongst target audiences. It will innovate by applying the geodesign framework to resource management. This in turn will allow for developing a GDSE to facilitate concrete place-specific strategies for using waste as a resource. Choosing this approach ensures the necessary flexibility and transparency in the decision-making process.